Friday, June 26, 2020

Birth Order Theory in The Fishermen A Psychoanalytic Perspective - Literature Essay Samples

First acknowledged by Francis Galton in 1874, birth order remains a psychological theory within social sciences today. The theory itself states that the order of the birth of siblings establishes certain predetermined traits for each child. According to psychologist Frank Sulloway, as explained in his publication Born to Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics, and Creative Lives, firstborns tend to be more conservative, supportive of existing authorities and â€Å"tough-minded† than their younger siblings (Freese, Powell and Steelman 208). In the course of The Fishermen, the novel by Chigozie Obioma, birth order is a clear underlying theme that influences family dynamics within the Agwu clan. How do the roles and expectations of the various Agwu brothers Ikenna, Boja, Obembe, and Benjamin, delegated according to their age, affect their relationships and personalities? A significant portion of the identity and behaviour of Benjamin Agwu throughout Fishermen can be explained through birth order theory and its evolvement pertaining to Ben throughout the novel, particularly examining the general role he plays within his family, and through interactions with his siblings, both as a younger-middle child, and when the responsibilities of an elder child are thrust upon him. Throughout most of Fishermen, nine-year-old Ben Agwu is a quiet observer of his family, and his older brothers especially. The third youngest in a family of six children, he technically occupies the position of a middle child. Ben`s familial role evolves numerous times in the course of the novel, originally introduced, however, as the youngest of the four protagonist brothers. His eldest brother, Ikenna, acts as a leader and example for the rest of his brothers. Boja, the second eldest, is presented as Ikenna’s close confidant, even though he is younger and still considered to be lower in rank: â€Å"they had a mutual respect for each other† (Obioma 43). Obembe is treated much like Ben in this brotherly hierarchy, viewed as a younger child, though he still possesses influence over Benjamin because he is older. Ben, the youngest of the four elder brothers, is hardly given say in what he does or when, and is often left to simply follow where his elder siblings lead. If as ked by Ikenna and Boja for an opinion, it is often out of obligation and his suggestions are rarely taken under serious consideration because of his comparable youth to the other males in his family. Ben narrates: â€Å"I hardly ever saw [Ikenna and Boja] argue, unlike the way they would answer my questions with an outright ‘no’ or ‘wrong’ or ‘incorrect’† (Obioma 43). A kind of â€Å"pack† mentality is prevalent, as the four brothers travel together constantly, acting based on the orders of Ikenna, whom their father has declared to be their leader. â€Å"They do whatever you do and go wherever you go. That’s to their credit, the way all of you follow each other† (Obioma 39), Eme Agwu says, summarizing the brotherhood of his sons. Together they fish, plan and execute revenge missions, and embark upon general adventures. Evidence of the influence of birth order is extremely apparent in the examination of the relationship of the Agwu brothers. Ikenna (prior to the detrimental prophecy of Abulu) exhibited several traits noted by Freese, Powell and Steelman to be characteristic of a firstborn, including academic prowess (Obioma 9), support of existing authorities (Obioma 60-61) and heightened responsibilities (Obioma 39). In contrast, Ben, who is the youngest of the Agwu sons that are able to venture independently from their parent s, relies seemingly completely upon guidance from his older brothers. Ben alludes to this when he states â€Å"I depended mostly on Obembe to help me clarify things† (Obioma 20), and puts it into practice when he struggles to understand his father’s manipulation of the term â€Å"fishermen†: â€Å"grasping for meaning, I looked at Obembe† (Obioma 37). In their article â€Å"Rebel Without a Cause or Effect: Birth Order and Social Attitudes,† Freese, Powell and Steelman conduct an overall examination of birth order theory, particularly in relation to Sulloway’s studies. Generally speaking, â€Å"laterborn† children are expected to be more liberal thinkers, achieve less academically and act less responsibly than their firstborn siblings (Freese, Powell and Steelman 209). In a study conducted on more than 3,800 scientists, however, it was established by Sulloway that laterborn scientists are two times more likely to adopt radical new ideas early on than scientists who were the eldest child. This willingness to embrace new ideas was echoed by Benjamin in his similar quick (and sometimes blind) acceptance of his brother’s schemes. An illustration of this point can be found in Ben and Obembe’s start as fishermen. â€Å"Then one day, Ikenna said to Obembe and me: ‘Follow us, and we will make you f ishermen!’—and we followed† (Obioma 12) shows the quick acceptance of the forbidden concept of fishing by Ben and Obembe, the younger of the four protagonist siblings, at the mere call of their eldest brother. The behaviour and responses of Ben and Obembe towards their older brothers display the internal drive the laterborn brothers possess to please Ikenna and Boja. In the acutely felt absence of their father, Ikenna, and Boja to a lesser extent, represent the delegated masculine authority of the Agwu household. Therefore, a certain amount of power is afforded to Ikenna and Boja, resulting in a basic internal desire expressed by both Ben and Obembe to please their older brothers. Ben particularly, as the youngest of the four, has been conditioned to naturally follow the footsteps of his elder siblings so much that it became a key component of what Sigmund Freud identified an individual’s â€Å"id†. Ben’s basic human desire for acceptance, affirmation and belonging seek fulfilment through his elder sibling relations. As the novel progresses, Ben’s world becomes increasingly tumultuous as he loses each of his elder siblings. Initially, the death of Ikenna and the simultaneous disappearance of Boja (later discovered to be a suicide) transition Ben from a position of reliance within his family to a position of influence, leaving both Benjamin and Obembe with greater responsibilities, as Obembe must assume the leadership of his kin, and Ben must become his brother’s supporter in that task. Ben describes the feeling of losing his brothers as â€Å"the feeling that a fabric awning or an umbrella under which we’d sheltered all along was torn apart, leaving me exposed† (Obioma 175). He reveals â€Å"I had never lived without my brothers I merely followed their lead I had lived with them, relied on them so much that no concrete thought ever took shape in my mind without first floating through their heads† (Obioma 272). The first time Ben truly attempts to assert himself, in fact, comes when he questions Obembe’s insistence in killing Abulu, though he does eventually concede to assist his brother in his murder plot (Obioma 200). Furthermore, when Obembe decides to flee from the consequences of his and Ben’s murder of Abulu, Ben suddenly finds himself not only in a position of greater power, but fully thrust into the role of eldest sibling. He is left to balance his own youth with the new uncertainty of setting an example for his younger siblings, and in representing his family unit. He compares himself to a fragile moth whose wings have been removed, and can â€Å"no longer fly, but crawl† (Obioma 272). Yet it is his separation of himself from Obembe, and Ben’s initiative in taking responsibility and facing the consequences for his and Obembe’s act of avengement that Ben finally assumes a position of leadership, asserting his own opinion (Obioma 270). Comparatively, a parallel to the biblical account of Cain and Abel, found in Genesis 4 can be drawn when considering the theory of birth order. Cain, as the firstborn son of Adam, was regarded with the utmost respect, evidenced by his position in caring for his family’s crops; Abel held the lesser position of tending to â€Å"flocks† (Genesis 4:2-3). When time came for presentation of offerings to the Lord, however, God favoured Abel’s offering of â€Å"fat portions from some of the firstborn of his flock† over the â€Å"fruits of the soil† offered by Cain (Genesis 4:4). Traditionally, God’s utmost favour was to be awarded to the firstborn. Abel received the Lord’s blessings, however, because he brought God the best of what he had to offer (fats from his firstborn), whereas Cain brought â€Å"some fruits† to God, a considerably inferior offering, as Cain would have had access to reapings deemed more culturally important due to h is duties. The resulting inversement of the sibling hierarchy, such that Abel received the Lord’s favour undermined Cain’s authority as the elder brother and his desire for the honour this afforded him societally meant embarrassment and shame for Cain, ultimately manifesting itself in the murder of his brother. Though it was his brothers that experienced a similar parallel and not Ben himself in Fishermen, this biblical comparison illustrates the role birth order can play within sibling relations, sometimes resulting in tension. Every individual experiences the need for acceptance, affirmation, belonging and safety, among other basic human desires. A core part of a person’s id, these are instinctual inclinations that require regulation by the ego in order for any individual to function within society. Siblings share a unique bond that can satisfy this desire, though the theory of birth order often complicates these relationships as notably evidenced in the brotherly relations within Fishermen, and paralleled in the Genesis account. Benjamin Agwu’s behaviour and the evolution of his identity illustrate in part the impact and importance of birth order pertaining to his kin. This was evidenced in Ben’s role within the Agwu family and through interactions between himself and his brothers, both when he was considered among the younger of his siblings and tasked with little, and as tragic familial circumstances demanded his quick assumption of responsibilities, typical of an elder son. Though only a theory, Ben’s roles and their evolution throughout Fishermen can definitely be attributed, at least in part, to birth order, and the inherent strength of brotherly bonds that cannot be over appreciated.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Quavyon Green . Professor Irwin . English 1113 . 2/19/2017 .

Quavyon Green Professor Irwin English 1113 2/19/2017 In The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander is about a shocking statistic. That more African American men are in correctional facilities or on probation than were enslaved in the mid 1800s before the Civil war started. She offers her perspective on the mass incarceration of African American men in the US. Taking shots at all she holds responsible for the issues. She explores the social and systematic influence of racial stereotypes and policies that support incarceration of minorities. She explains that minorities are discriminated against legally for their whole lives. By being denied employment, housing, education, and public benefits. Unable to overcome said obstacles most will†¦show more content†¦The chapter also delves into the counterproductive culture of rap and violence, in which black identity is ensnared into the stereotypical, fueling a vicious cycle of incarceration. Armstrong argues that rap operates as a contemporary iteration of the minstrel show, in which a w arped black identity is offered up for white entertainment. This entails the proliferation of negative behavior through certain media image-making which is designed to pander to a false sense of superiority among whites. Alexander concludes the chapter by offering a remedy in which embracing the person and critiquing the counterproductive behavior is salient. It could be argued though that Armstrong underplays instances of successful re-integration, thus underestimating the possible influence and efficacy of resilience and individual effort. Michelle Alexander utilizes the assumption in order to demonstrate the hidden stigmatism of racial oppression in the 21st century through mass incarceration. The absences she points out is mainly due to incarceration a fact that is generally withheld when the black community is chided over absent fathers. Commonly portrayed as an individual choice by black men. This subterfuge is achieved through a number of media based tactics unrealistic perceptions of racial progress. This tacticis through a denial system

Monday, May 18, 2020

Essay on Toni Morrisons Beloved - How We Define Ourselves

How We Define Ourselves in Beloved The idea of how we define ourselves is a topic that has much force in the novel Beloved by Toni Morrison. Two of the characters in the novel have strongly opposite ideas of defining their own â€Å"selves†. Baby Suggs displays a very healthy sense of self, completely based on only who she is as a person, and not relying on any other person to assist her in her definition. She is an independent person and loves her own â€Å"self† greatly. Sethe, on the other hand, has an unhealthy sense of self because who she is is strongly dependent on her interactions and relationships with her children. The above is excerpt is provided to indicate the focus of the essay. The complete essay begins below:†¦show more content†¦In addition, they too have been growing and learning in their own environment with different family members’ influences. Each of our own influences, in turn, influences others. From there, we again take in and learn what we can so we can make our own decisions on how to define our â€Å"selves†. Later, society influences our thoughts on who we are as people and our relation to the world as a whole. There is a constant norm that people try to assimilate to or diverge from. Society presents its own ideas of who we should be as people, and it is then our own job to take that information and do what we will with it to make our own definition for ourselves of who we are. Two things can happen when we are required to base our definition of â€Å"self† on others. One can take others’ ways of living and thinking, process them, a nd formulate his or her own definition, independent of anyone else. Or, one can use the relationships he or she has with other people on which to base their own definition of self, thus making him or her dependent on those other people. As young people, we learn and take in all we can through the world, our experiences, and relationships with other people. From there, we grow and establish our own identities, our own â€Å"selves†, in response to those interactions with others. This definition is continually growing and progressing as we evolve as people, interacting with different people in different environments andShow MoreRelated Toni Morrisons Beloved: Not a Story to be Passed On Essay example5432 Words   |  22 PagesToni Morrisons Beloved: Not a Story to be Passed On Beloved, Toni Morrisons Nobel Prize winning novel, is a masterfully written book in which the characters must deal with a past that perpetually haunts them.   This haunting, in the form of a twenty year old ghost named Beloved, not only stalks them in the spirit, but also in the flesh.   Beloved, both in story and in character hides the truth in simple ways and convinces those involved that the past never leaves, it only becomes part of whoRead More Remembering the Disremembered Essay4818 Words   |  20 Pagesfor, she cannot be lost because no one is looking for her, and even if they were, how can they call her if they dont know her name? Although she has claim, she is not claimed. In the place where long grass opens, the girl who waited to be loved and cry shame erupts into her separate parts, to make it easy for the chewing laughter to swallow her all away. It was not a story to pass on. - Toni Morrison, Beloved To write history means giving dates their physiognomy. - Walter Benjamin

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Analysis Of Bless Me Ultima - 1325 Words

It can be argued, as human beings, we are students of life, and death is one of the hard lessons that we will encounter. Our faith is not a fixed concept, it is affected by a convergence of factors and events in our life. A person’s faith is a complex and differs from one person to another, but one thing is for certain, it affects how we look at life and how we approach life. Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me Ultima divulges into the life an inquisitive six year old Antonio as he transitions from a young boy to a man and becomes cognizant of life’s tragedies. His inquisitive nature that persists to understand himself and his world bears an internal struggle that leaves a rift of ambivalence that mentally tears him between opposing ideals.†¦show more content†¦He still goes back to the idea of his preordained future in priesthood. Anaya also uses symbolism to show the stark contrast between the â€Å"stain of blood† and the â€Å"sweet waters of my river. The idea that Lupito’s blood was spilled as a result of his impure and sinful actions is now tainting and defiling the purity and sanctity of water could be paralleled to Antonio’s innocence defiled and diluted by the horrors he had just witnessed. Arguably, Lupito’s death is an unjustified persecution of an ill man. His actions—actions that he was not completely conscious of—stemmed from the horrors of war which brings about the question of justice. Why would God let this man—a man not fully conscious of his actions—be held responsible, punished, and persecuted? The second death that Antonio witnessed furthered his negotiation with faith and caused him to question God’s fairness. Narciso’s death permeated Antonio’s vision of a just God. Antonio questions how a compassionate God could co-exist with the presence of evil. During his life, Narciso was vilified and alienated. Tenorio’s killing of Narciso is an example of an archetypal Good versus Evil situation. Tenorio, the nefarious manifestation of all that is evil, condemned Narciso, a misunderstood but ultimately, a good man, to his death. He looks to God for Narciso’s salvation. â€Å"I knew what I had to pray. I had to pray an Act of Contrition for his departing soul†¦ IShow MoreRelatedThematic Analysis Of Bless Me, Ultima1580 Words   |  7 Pages Thematic Analysis of Conflicts in, Bless me, Ultima Differences in others aid to the stimulation of ideas and opinions that expresses an individual s personality. In Rudolfo Anaya’s bildungsroman, Bless Me, Ultima, the struggle between two families and their extreme differences cause numerous conflicts that are constantly present throughout his novel. In this chicano inspired novel, Antonio Marà ©z, the six year old protagonist, is perpetually faced with instances of dissimilarity throughoutRead MoreAnalysis : Bless Me, Ultima 1636 Words   |  7 PagesSpring and Bless Me, Ultima respectively. The effect and response Rachel Carson wanted to create within the audience was better illustrated in Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima as they both hoped to evoke an empathetic and intersubjective relationship with nature. While Silent Spring was groundbreaking and effectively created a culture of environmental awareness, Carson objectified nature by showing the horrid consequences we face by not taking care of nature. On th e other hand, Bless me, Ultima’sRead MoreBless Me Ultima Analysis1203 Words   |  5 PagesMora and the novel, â€Å"Bless Me, Ultima†, by Rudolfo Anaya portray the curandera in different and similar ways. The literary works consist of common characteristics and qualities that the curanderos possess irrespective of the different genders. In both poems, the curanderos are knowledgeable. Besides, they have a close connection with nature, and the people from their towns respect them greatly. Bless Me, Ultima is Anaya’s first novel in which he describes the curandera, Ultima and the protagonistRead MoreBless Me, Ultima Literary Analysis714 Words   |  3 Pagesâ€Å"Bless Me, Ultima† by Rudolfo Anaya Literary Analysis Throughout the context of â€Å"Bless Me Ultima,† it is evident that there are many motifs and examples of dichotomy. I believe that Anaya uses the previously mentioned elements of literature in order to provoke his readers’ thinking and help embody a struggle of understanding the world we live in. Motifs in this novel include: family, dreams, religion, education, and the list continues. For examples of dichotomy, the idea of good versus evil isRead MoreThematic Analysis Of Bless Me, Ultima1447 Words   |  6 PagesThematic Analysis of Bless Me, Ultima Bless me, Ultima is a book taking place in the 1940’s during world war ll in New Mexico, it is about a young boy named Antonio who is being torn this way and that by his mother, a Luna who wants solely for her son to become a man of knowledge and a priest. His father a Marez vaquero (cowboy) who wants him to be free like all the Marez men before him. Both parents are polar opposites from each other the Luna’s who represent the moon are quite, religious farmersRead MoreAnalysis : Bless Me, Ultima 1488 Words   |  6 Pagesculture and ancient Hispanic culture, that argue and show the need for general indigenous beliefs through interrelations of the sources of life itself. This paper seeks to analyze the poetic coverage of the history of early indigenous culture in Bless Me, Ultima, by showing a detailed comparison of the transitional experiences of early native people to Antonio. Indigenous natives of the American land have experienced transitional experiences that range from the first encounters with the colonial EuropeansRead MoreAn Analysis Of Bless Me Ultima831 Words   |  4 PagesBless me Ultima How or why did it become controversial? Rudolfo Anaya’s best novel Bless me Ultima had one of the greatest impact in the Latino community. The story is based on a youngRead MoreAnalysis Of Bless Me, Ultima 1618 Words   |  7 Pages Bless me Ultima Lap Syeda Ahmed Prompt 4 Mr. Amoroso pr3 September 27 2016 . Death in one’s life time is unavoidable. In a way those effected by death, die themselves but ultimately shed that part of their life to grow a new stronger and wiser layer in its place. Rudolfo Anaya shows this perfectly in his novel Bless Me, Ultima, with the use of his character Antonio. Anaya uses death as a catalyst to the solution for Antonio’s frustrations on religion. Each death showing significances to theRead MoreAnalysis : Bless Me, Ultima 1777 Words   |  8 Pageswith questions with no resolution. Our mind would wonder down bizarre paths but we go no further then what we know. Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless me Ultima proscribes that feeling when we are young our minds strive with curiosity to seek guidance to face the harsh reality of life in a manner we ourselves are prepared for when that time finally arrives. Rudolfo Anaya† Bless Me, Ultima’s† protagonist Antonio spiral down a treacherous path that he himself isn’t prepared at the slightest, but is carried underRead MoreAnalysis : Bless And Me Ultima 1456 Words   |  6 PagesAnaya developed in Bless Me Ultima. Death something so simple yet painful.We question it as if it were unnatural, when in reality what we’re questioning is our own thoughts we question the higher power that we were taught to believe in the moment we’re born. We question whether that higher being truly cares for us or are we just a game for it to pass the time. Does it truly punish those who were good people for fun or is there good reasoning behind it. Like Antonio from Bless Me Ultima who questioned

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Understanding of Behavior and the Brain Essay

The Understanding of Behavior and the Brain The trend of neurobiology and physiology predicting and causing behavioris not a new fact. So many illnesses and diseases are now attributed to biological mechanisms. A recent article in Newsweek comments on how those in the field of psychology and neuroscience are beginning to stress the fact that certain brain mechanisms account for mental illnesses and particular behaviors. Doctors seem to blame their patients peculiarities on a biologically based mental illness, rather then seeing them as individual responses to lifes circumstances (Begley 1998). It then becomes more common to prescribe drugs to alleviate the symptoms rather than understanding the behavior. Two recent developments have†¦show more content†¦This parallels the concepts learned in class that the input/output mechanism is bi-directional. Outputs (behaviors) can influence inputs (physiological mechanisms). Instead of observing behaviors like our leg muscles moving to cause changes in the firing of neurons, on e example of an output influencing an input is the reaction to stress and how they affect our biological mechanisms. Viewed from an evolutionary standpoint, in early times stress caused the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in an outpouring of the hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucocorticoids that were essential to the life-preserving fight or flight reactions of primitive man (Anthony 1988). However, the nature of stress for the individual today is different. It is only occasionally and unexpectedly that one is confronted with overwhelming, life-threatening stresses. Present stresses arise from everyday stresses of work, finances and school. The problem is that the body still continues to respond in the same fashion as primitive times. This makes the large release of hormones very harmful. They can cause an increase in blood pressure, damage muscle tissue, lead to infertility, inhibit growth, damage the hippocampus and suppress the immune system (Carlson 1994). It is therefore, important that individuals learn to control the stresses in their lives. The more detri mental coping behaviors will cause a larger changeShow MoreRelatedEssay on Understanding Consciousness1728 Words   |  7 PagesUnderstanding Consciousness This paper encompasses an analysis of physiological psychology, the relationship between the human nervous system and behavior, and an evaluation of historical figures in the field of physiological psychology The Biopsychological Approach to Understanding Consciousness The process of understanding awareness can be complex. Understanding that there are different spectrums of consciousness and that each type represents different principles is the best approach to understandingRead MoreThe Importance of Biology in the Study of Psychology Essay991 Words   |  4 PagesAbstract Whether it is the study of biopsychology and other fields of psychology or neuroscience, all psychologists and scientists are trying to understand the functions of the brain. The body and mind connection and how it reacts to certain behaviors or illnesses. Most all psychological functioning can be reduced to underlying brain processes. This should serve as reason alone as to why biology plays an important part in the study of psychology. Psychological factors play a role in whether a person developsRead MoreThe Biological Characteristics Of Children842 Words   |  4 Pagesreference to understanding the consequences of their actions, and the emotional development of children with respect to their character and behavior. 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Globalization the Americanization of the World Free Essays

string(71) " sent aid and rhetorical sympathies to the economically barren latter\." Andrew J. Bacevich, American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U. S. We will write a custom essay sample on Globalization: the Americanization of the World? or any similar topic only for you Order Now Diplomacy (Harvard University Press, 2002). Joseph E. Stiglitz, Making Globalization Work (Norton, 2007). James L. Watson, ed. , Golden Arches East: McDonald’s in East Asia (2nd edition, Stanford University Press, 2007). Robert McCrum, Globish: How the English Language Became the World’s Language (Norton, 2010). Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World (Norton, 2009). Globalization is the integration of the world’s different regions into a global culture, economy, geo-political arena, and communication network. It is the process by which the lines of nation states are blurred, smoothed over by new international institutions. Globalization is the undeniable destination of human history and as such permeates nearly every facet of it. It is liquid in this sense, flowing and changing to fill in wherever it flows, but there can be no doubts of the tide of globalizations source: The United States of America. At first glance, the distinctions between Globalization and Americanization are almost imperceptible. â€Å"Big Mac, Coke, and Disney† (Watson, 5) are as recognizable to Chinese and Russians as they are to Americans. The World Bank and IMF’s policies are more or less set by Washington. The American military has the most powerful armies and fleets the world has ever seen, and has effectively dominated the world from World War I onwards. The United States population which is less than 5% of the world population produces about a quarter of global GDP. Such realities might lead one to the conclusion that Globalization and Americanization are synonymous, but is this actually the case? In the discussion of the books at hand, globalization as it pertains to Americanization is made evident. Andrew Bacevich contends that the United States is the primary agent of modern globalization. It has capitalized on the opportunities it has been presented with in order to create a system of global politics and economics that is of the most benefit to itself, all the while packaging it in altruistic rhetoric. Joseph Stiglitz contends that the United States has conducted globalization by dominating the institutions of world governance and finance. It has done so to the detriment of other nations and as such, the American means of globalization is not the best strategy if true globalization† is the desired end. James Watson holds that McDonald’s, once as iconic of America as the stars and stripes and one of the leading agents of globalization, has been assimilated into many local cultures. As such, it no longer represents the Americanized aspect of globalization, but is rather an international institution and an agent of globalization at large. Yet, some of the seemingly obvious aspects of American led globalization are not as American as they may seem today. Robert McCrum asserts that English being the world’s language arises not from American economic and foreign policies, but is rather a legacy of the British Empire. Furthermore, that America is not spreading its culture through English, it is only a tool to be used for communication. Finally, Fareed Zakaria demonstrates that we are departing from a unipolar world dominated by America. Although it will continue to play a leading role in the globalization of the world, â€Å"the rise of the rest† is diminishing its role and the United States is no longer solely holding the reins of globalization. Andrew Bacevich’s assertion is that the idea of the American empire differs only in form from traditional imperialism. Its function, enriching the mother country, is precisely the same but employs a variety of techniques to make this less evident. The United States embraces its role in history of exerting power only as a last resort. Only when circumstances totally necessitated it would America resort to using Theodore Roosevelt’s proverbial â€Å"big stick† (Bacevich 117). The Spanish American war began only when General Valeriano â€Å"Butcher† Weyler could be tolerated no more. World War I was entered only because of the unprovoked German aggression upon the Lusitania. Cold War military and political endeavors were nobly pursued to defend against Communist aggression. Yet Andrew Bacevich rejects this view. He argues that this â€Å"myth of the ‘reluctant superpower’—Americans asserting themselves only under duress and then always for the noblest purposes† (Bacevich 7-8) is exactly that, a myth. That Roosevelt’s reportedly soft speaking and big stick carrying America uses the† reluctant superpower† myth only in order to justify acts of self-interest. Perhaps the more fitting description of America by Theodore Roosevelt is his affirmation that â€Å"of course, our whole national history has been one of expansion† (Bacevich, 7). The United States has conscientiously exerted itself at every opportunity in order to expand its global economic and strategic interests. America’s superpower status and role as an agent of globalization is driven entirely by the machinery of self-interest. Bacevich writes that â€Å"ever increasing prosperity† (Bacevich, 85) is the primary national interest. Furthermore, as Bill Clinton stated â€Å"Growth at home depends upon growth abroad. † Of course, there is still the legitimate idealistic side of globalization as â€Å"the ultimate promise of peace, prosperity, and democracy† (Bacevich, 42), but America’s actual interest and role in globalization is to expand the American economy. In other words, America’s aims in globalization are to benefit the world yes, but â€Å"benefit the United States most of all† (Bacevich, 96). The American economic empire, brought about by the domestic desire for continued growth is the overarching American interest in the realm of globalization. The fact that â€Å"where interests were slight, the United States seldom bothered to make the effort to assert any substantial leverage† (Bacevich, 107) vividly illustrates this. Considering the insubstantial economic incentives of Africa, it â€Å"consistently ranks dead last in U. S. strategic priorities† (Bacevich, 107). Now, take into account the economic and political incentives of Europe’s markets and the Middle East’s oil reserves. Based on US military intervention, it is telling that â€Å"conditions that in the Balkans or the Persian Gulf the United States found intolerable were in Africa merely unfortunate† (Bacevich, 108). The United States found it necessary to militarily intervene in the former two interest-rife locations, and merely sent aid and rhetorical sympathies to the economically barren latter. You read "Globalization: the Americanization of the World?" in category "Papers" The portrait of Americanization and Globalization that Andrew Bacevich paints acknowledges one of the primary facets upon which the two collide, the global economy and the United States role within it. To deny that America has been the driving force behind the creation and continuance of modern open market operations, and to deny that it has done so for the betterment of its own economic interests is to deny all but the rhetoric of American imperialism. The United States did not have, as the historian Ernest May naively stated, â€Å"greatness thrust upon it† (Bacevich, 7), but rather calculatedly and ingeniously shaped its responses to global politics and economics in order to integrate and derive the most benefit from the new globalized economy. Joseph Stiglitz, rather explicitly argues that â€Å"globalization should not mean the Americanization of either economic policy or culture, but it often does—and that has caused resentment† (Stiglitz, 9). He argues that â€Å"the worry about American unilateralism, about the world’s most powerful country imposing its will on others† (Stiglitz, 5) is fast becoming substantiated. Despite economic indicators such as GDP suggesting that poor countries seem to be improving, â€Å"globalization might be creating rich countries with poor people† (Stiglitz, 9). As Stiglitz argues, the United States’ goal of making Americanization a component of globalization is causing this. Particularly responsible has been the Washington Consensus, a set of development promoting policies created between the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and the U. S. Treasury. The former two of these are basically international lending bodies, delivering short and long term loans, respectively, to countries in need. The policies outlined are â€Å"downscaling of government, deregulation, and rapid liberalization and privatization† (Stiglitz, 17). Although these are the characteristics of western countries, western countries did not become this way through the â€Å"shock therapy† of instant implementation. Rather they came from a drawn out progression of events The implication is that the United States, in attempting to make its political and economic policies integral concepts of the grander one of globalization, is actually turning countries off to the Americanized aspect of globalization. Similarly, the manner in which the United States encourages international trade to be conducted is a hindrance to globalization at large within poor countries. Stiglitz writes that â€Å"countries often need time to develop in order to compete with foreign companies† (Stiglitz, 70). Yet, The United States and the international trade organizations which it dominates oppose tariffs for many industries on the grounds of it inhibiting trade and not allowing the all-wise power of the market to control the economy. However, â€Å"most successful countries did in fact develop behind protectionist barriers† and climbed the â€Å"ladder of development†. The anti-tariff policies that soundly developed countries advocate are viewed as trying to â€Å"kick the ladder away so others can’t follow† (Stiglitz, 71). The uncertain effectiveness of these western policies, policies necessary for developing countries to get assistance from the IMF and World Bank, which they almost undeniably need, calls into question the western policies which they don’t necessarily need, namely democracy. Stiglitz writes that â€Å"IMF conditionality undermines democracy† (Stiglitz, 56), that although â€Å"globalization has helped spread the idea of democracy, it has, paradoxically, been managed in a way that undermines democratic processes within countries† (Stiglitz, 12). America, in efforts to save countries from spending time on the economic policy learning curve, in reality ends up harming them. As such, the United States’ inadequacy for creating economic agendas for developing countries is a paradox of its own success. He posits that in order for the developing countries to benefit from globalization, the agenda of globalization needs to depart from the Americanized version, and instead â€Å"have the voices of developing nations (be) heard more clearly† (Stiglitz, 98). If the hardline factors of globalization—economics, geo-political military assertions, and international governance are the easiest to assess the American-ness of—the soft aspects: cultural and linguistic patterns, are the most difficult. James Watson contends that in some respect, global corporations gain their transnational appeal simply by being American; by being an image of modernity. However, he also holds that components of globalization that were once considered agents of Americanization are now accepted as local. Japanese McDonald’s have â€Å"clearly capitalized on the fact that it is associated with American culture† (Watson, 172). In China, McDonald’s promotes â€Å"the corporations image as an exemplar of modernity† (Watson, 42). McDonald’s in these countries represents what the West represents, or more accurately, what the locals believe the West to represent—â€Å"the promise of modernization† (Watson, 41). It has gone so far as to even change cultural eating habits. In these locations, McDonald’s sells more than hamburgers. It sells America as an ideology, a place of modernity, cleanliness, efficiency, and equality. As Watson would contend in China and Japan, McDonald’s represents the convergence of the idealistic facets of Americanization and globalization: the United States as a favorable model to be emulated. Yet in the case of McDonald’s in Hong Kong, it is not considered â€Å"an example of American-inspired transnational culture† or â€Å"perceived as an exotic or alien institution† (Watson, 107). Rather it is a fully assimilated part of Hong Kong’s modern culture. As Watson writes, â€Å"the transnational is the local. † The younger generation could not â€Å"imagine life without it† (Watson, 109). Thusly, at least in Hong Kong, the American aspect of McDonald’s globalization has faded with its assimilation into the national identity. Although American, it no longer Americanizes or suggests that the American odel is something good and unique that should be followed. McDonald’s in Korea however suggests a different view of Americanization. Some people hold that â€Å"eating McDonald’s hamburgers is tantamount to treason and loss of Korean identity† (Watson, 158) At least here, to some degree McDonald’s is view ed as an American crusader of â€Å"cultural imperialism—a new form of exploitation that results from the export of popular culture from the United States† (Watson, 5). McDonald’s represents a conquering American agent seeking to enthrall and draw in cultures to that of its global Americanized one. Another phenomenon of globalization, one might argue American-driven globalization, is English becoming the language of the world. Robert McCrum argues however that this is not a legacy of the American century, but rather a legacy of the British Empire. America has helped to propagate it but it in fact is originally an agent of British-ization. McCrum writes â€Å"The nineteenth (century) was, supremely, the century of British English – first the King’s and then the Queen’s – but it also witnessed the beginnings of the world’s English† (McCrum, 174). English spread to the earth not as a result of America’s dominance in the 20th century, but rather Britain’s far flung immigration in the 19th. McCrum contends that this is what made Jean-Paul Nerriere’s global English (Globish) so accessible to so many people across the world. It is removed from American influence in that it was not asserted upon the world by America. Rather because of Britain and certain historical tilts towards English speaking, it simply fell into place. In essence, McCrum asserts that British English lay the foundation for English to become, as John Adams wrote in 1780, â€Å"in the next and succeeding centuries†¦the language of the world† (McCrum, 105), and as such is not truly an assertion of American influence. However, McCrum’s points are debatable. As a proud Englishman, he seems ready to assert the obvious role of Britain in making it a global language, but is less generous when it comes to the American aspects. Furthermore, his denial of English as a cultural force is problematic. The global media is dominated by America. The largest media conglomerates in the world are American. Ten of the highest twelve paid musicians in the world are American. McCrum seems to ignore the fact that media is one of the largest aspects of globalization, and that American influences dominate it. These have been the themes of globalization. The convergence of Americanization and globalization has dually permeated military affairs, economics, culture, and language. On the global stage, the United States has been the dominant player for over a century. However, to what extent will this remain true in the 21st century? Fareed Zakaria contends that it will, but will require a reassessment of the global community. Zakaria puts forth that we are â€Å"now living through the third great power shift of the modern era† (Zakaria, 2), not â€Å"the decline of America but rather†¦the rise of everyone else† (Zakaria, 1). What this means for Globalization as it is linked to Americanization is that although the U. S. ’s role will still be there, it is diminishing. The historically United States dominated past has paved the way for this. Its active efforts in globalizing the worlds consequence is the â€Å"rise of the rest† (Zakaria, 2). As Zakaria writes â€Å"the United States succeeded in its great and historic mission—it globalized the world. But along the way†¦it forgot to globalize itself† (Zakaria, 48). The arising international order that Zakaria see’s is a term invented by Samuel Huntington â€Å"uni-multipolarity†, which can be described as â€Å"many powers and one super-power† (Zakaria, 43). In the new international order, the United States will merely be a leading actor on a stage of many. The other actors are comprised of new powerful economies—China, India, Brazil. The United States has been able to maintain its preeminence within globalization in the past but the changing realities of the global economic landscape will require according change from America. Zakaria lays out a series of principles that the United States should or must follow in order to maintain its position in the modern world as a chief agent of globalization. These principles recognize the changing landscape and suggest how America can perpetuate its interests, its goal of Americanization within globalization. Firstly, the United States must choose which policies it actively wants to pursue. The ambiguity of policy facing Iran and North Korea do not allow the United States to reach an attainable international goal. If the United States were to decide that they were simply proponents of â€Å"regime change or policy change (that is, denuclearization)† (Zakaria, 234) they could more efficiently define the changes they wish to see in the global community. Similarly, in order for the US to continue to blend Americanization with Globalization, they must set out broad rules and seek to cultivate its bilateral relationships with other nations. As Zakaria argues, if the U. S. has strong relationships with other strong nations, better than anyone has with another, â€Å"it gives the United States the greatest leverage†¦maximizing its ability to shape a peaceful and stable world† (Zakaria, 242). The United States must also be careful in how it shapes it’s responses to international conflict. â€Å"Legitimacy is power† (Zakaria, 247) and the nature of the United States’ current conflicts are â€Å"asymmetrical†, meaning they are not facing conventional military forces or typical state actors. As Zakaria writes â€Å"asymmetrical responses have become easier to execute and difficult to defeat† (Zakaria, 244). Therefore in order to remain legitimate, to have the power to â€Å"set the agenda, define a crisis, and mobilize support† (Zakaria, 247) for the United States’ interests in globalization, reactions need to be shaped to fit the conflicts at hand. Overall, Zakaria contends that if the United States is not willing to change its policies and approach towards globalization and the global community, it will no longer effectively be able to mesh Americanization with globalization. In the analysis of how linked globalization and Americanization are within the context of these books, a complex and comprehensive picture can be draw. The United States has been able to use globalization as a tool to create a global economic empire and cultural model. Through the capitalization of opportunities to expand its markets, packaged in its â€Å"reluctant superpower† myth, the United States has been able to assert itself internationally and accomplish its political and economic aims. However, the changing nature of the global landscape calls for a recalculation of how this strategy of self-interest can be perpetuated. Furthermore, the United States will have to make some concessions regarding its hegemony as other nations with large populations and strong economies grow in power and importance. Culturally, the United States benefited from the British Empire’s legacy of spreading English around the world. However, it has also been able to capitalize on this and further Americanize the world through the consequentially large English speaking media outlets. Multinational corporations such as McDonald’s still possess their American identity abroad, but this is beginning to change in respect to the world’s youth. It is now dually perceived as a symbol of modernity (which sometimes equates to Americanization) but also a component of local culture. Therefore, whether globalization is the Americanization of the world seems to be a yes. The debate whether it will, or should continue to be, is still ongoing, and remains to be seen, dependent on how America conducts itself in the post-American World. How to cite Globalization: the Americanization of the World?, Papers

Essay English Language and Linguistics

Question: Write a research essay on "English Language and Linguistics". Answer: Research Problem Today English is a universal language and at the same time, English is a commercial language as well, therefore, this language is required everywhere, especially to have a job. In Saudi Arabia, although the English language is treated as a second language and the way the language is taught to the pupils is completely teacher-centric, where the teacher is the active player and the students are the passive listener (Almalki, 2014). The teachers, who are there in the schools of Saudi Arabia, are not well trained and not competent enough to provide good lectures and notes to the people. Moreover, in case of teaching Grammar-Translation, the teachers in the schools of Saudi Arabia, especially, teachers in the public schools of Saudi Arabia, use the Arabic language to save time and to finish the curriculum within a particular time. The things that are there in the curriculum are not at all related in any way to the deductive topics and thus the ability to think critically and the skill of thinking critically is not developed among the individuals. According to many critics and scholars in Saudi Arabia, English is not being treated as a language of communication, and the scholars believe that there should be a change in this way of thinking and the teachers should develop contemporary method of teaching the English today, as a means of communication. The teachers in Saudi Arabia, should use the modern technology for teach the students and therefore, teachers should be well trained and should have all the knowledge about modern day communication that will help in teaching the language to the students. Apart from this particular thing, the teachers should try to bring in a change in the curriculum and should try to redesign the textbooks at the same time, to make sure that the way English language is taught to the people in Saudi Arabia, is effective for them in their employment sector. The research here deals with the problem that the students in Saudi Arabia are facing because English there is not taught as a communicative language, and whether the use technology and multimedia is effective to teach student English in a perfect communicative way. Research Rationale and Significance The research aim at designing model lesson plan that would aim at using modern technologies, for teaching effective communicative English language to the students of Saudi Arabia, and at the same time it would help in developing those skills among the students that will help them to critically think about the certain problem. The modern technology that could be use for the purpose of teaching communicative English language to the people include, using movies and songs for the purpose of teaching and at the same time the graphical novels could be used as well. The modern technologies would help the teachers in building their own lesson plan, which would help the students to learn language effectively without any problem (Mahboob Elyas, 2014). The research here proposed to come up with significant results that would help the teachers to introduce the English language in a proper way to the students, with the help of the modern technology. The research would be significant because it would guide the teachers to come up with such lesson plans that are not teacher centric, rather with such plans, that are, student centric. The research outcome will be significant for the students, because it will help them to acquire the language both for the academics and at the same time for the purpose conversation as well. Research Question The following research here, tries to answer the following questions: RQ1: How the modern technology would help in providing effective Communicative Language Teaching or CLT? RQ2: Does the modern language helps in developing the reading and writing skills in foreign language? RQ3: Does the modern technology helps in eliminating the drawbacks, which were there in the traditional teaching methods? RQ4: What are the problems that are associated with the implementation of the modern technology in the classrooms of Saudi Arabia? RQ5: Is the method of using modern technology for CLT appealing to all the students and the teachers of Saudi Arabia? RQ 6: What are the impact of the parental values and the beliefs on the learning outcome of the student? RQ 7: How the increased class time of the English language teaching helps in developing the skills of the students in the school? Research Design The descriptive research process is being used in this particular research because the particular type of research design would help in analyzing the participants in the research in an accurate way. The particular research method, according to The Office of Human Research Protections, not totally an experimental method, rather it is a method that is being used to define the correlation between a particular thing and the world around it (Gray, 2013). The Descriptive design, include unique number of variables, and while in other kinds of research design there is the need of multiple variable in case of analysis, in case of descriptive research design it can be either multiple variable or it can be done with the help of a single variable as well. In case reporting on the percentage summary the use of the single variable could be used as well, and it could be easily done with the help of the single variable. The particular research design is not restricted within the quantitative and the qualitative analysis but at the same time, it includes the method of data collection and data analysis as well. The descriptive research design mainly aims at answering the question what is; therefore, it frequently uses the survey and at the same times the observation method (Wiek, Withycombe, Redman, Mills, 2011). Methodology The methodology that is being used in this particular research is the following: Literature Review: The particular research has the in-depth study of the literature that is obtained from various sources. The sources that has helped in this in-depth study include; the books and the journals, that are bought or being assessed from the library. It includes the online articles, journals and other web resources as well. The resources helped in having knowledge about the type of teaching that is being practiced in schools of Saudi Arabia, and how the use of the modern technology in countries, such as Australia, has turned to be effective in case of teaching foreign language (University, 2016). Data Collection: The data for this particular research has been collected in two different ways and those two are the following ways: Quantitative Data Collection: The quantitative data is being collected from the focus group in a tabulated form that includes both the numerical and the scores. The quantitative data should include questions like whether the multimedia is effective, for the students to learn the English for the purpose of academics and career development, or whether it is creating a pressure on the students. Qualitative Data Collection: The qualitative data would include the interviews of both the students and the teachers who are the part of the learning process. The qualitative way of data collection would help in knowing why the teachers are not adopting such a CLT method that would be helpful for the students to learn the language even for the communication as well. The qualitative data collection includes the interview transcript of the students as well. The students try to answer whether the way the language is being taught is effect for their career development or not. Mapping: Mapping comes at the beginning of the research and it focuses on the four key elements. The four key elements on which mapping focuses include, aims strategies, data collection and lastly on data analysis. The method of mapping is included in the qualitative method of data collection. The method of mapping includes three most important kind of mapping and those are the mind mapping, concept and the cognitive mapping. Focus Group: Focus group forms an important part of the qualitative data because focus group consists of those people, who would interview for the data collection. The data collection method, include that focus group that is not fully structured but rather the focus group is a semi-structured group where there can be a leader and they try to answer the questions on a particular topic. In this particular research the focus group would consists not only the students, who are studying English language in the schools of Saudi Arabia, rather it would consists both the student and the teachers. The teachers experience, and what they think about this particular topic and whether multimedia education and technology should be used for teaching English or not, are those questions that the teachers should answer. The point of the view of the students and the teachers both are important in this particular research and therefore, both of them would form the focus group. At the time of the focus g roup session there will be not only the audio recording of the people in the group but at the same time there would be certain amount of video recording as well, and both will be required for later data analysis section. Along with the audio and the video recordings there should be transcript of the whole interview and at the same time there should be two or three fellow researchers during the session, all of whom will be engaged in the process of note taking that will be later required for the purpose of data analysis. The notes that the researcher will take will take into account the non-verbal behavior of the focus group. Narrative Analysis: Narrative analysis is the part of the qualitative analysis where the researcher focuses on the making and using of the stories of the people to interpret the world around them. In this particular scenario also, the researcher would try to analyze the things that are being said both by the student and the teachers of Saudi Arabia is true or not. Narrative analysis is not about collecting sets of fact; rather it is about finding whether the stories that are narrated by the people who are interviewed are true or not. Archival materials: Archival data collection again is a part of the qualitative data collection method. It is one of the secondary method of data collection and this particular method of data collection, which include wide range of empirical materials, which the individual use for their own use or could even prepare to help the organization. The empirical materials include things like weblog, diaries, letters, and photographs on one hand and on the other hand, it could include things like, press releases, magazine articles, and things such as these. Archival data refers both to the interviews and to the field notes, therefore, it contribute a great deal on the theoretical part of the research that is being carried out. In this particular research, the diaries of the students and annual reports that would be collected from the schools, along with other things, and this would help in finding whether the traditional method of teaching the English language to the student effecting the st udents or not. Drawing: Drawing methodologies is an art-based or a visual methodology that will help in knowing the cognitive psychology of those who are being interviewed. The particular research methodology helps, especially in those researches that are being used to know the voice of the children. Therefore, in this particular research also the voice of the children studying in the schools of Saudi Arabia and is the part of the English language that is being taught in the schools. Thus, the drawings are used in the methodology part, and it helps in having a clear view of the cognitive development of the interviewer, it is to some extent, reflective in nature. Reflective Diaries: The qualitative data at times can be bias and therefore, there is an influence of the researchers on the participants (Ortlipp, 2016). The influence that is there on the participants could affect the findings of the research and therefore, to avoid such a thing it is important to maintain a reflective diary, which would record all the experiences and the feelings, and it would actually contribute to the findings and analysis of the research. The diary would at least help in maintaining the transparency in the research process (Cohen, Manion Morrison, 2016).. Data Analysis: The data that is being collected could be analyzed in the following ways: Quantitative Data Analysis: The quantitative data that is being collected could be analyzed with the method of statistical and graphical analysis (Mertens, 2014). Qualitative Data Analysis: Documentation is a process of analyzing the qualitative data, as it will keep the record of the data that was collected during the fieldwork. The documentation analysis includes all the data that is collected in the form of notes, interview scripts and tapes and volume of notes. Paradigm The research philosophy that is being used in this particular research is the research is the interpretive philosophy. The research here tries to find out the truth about the CLT in Saudi Arabia, and the research wants to grab that truth even from a simple fact, therefore, this particular research philosophy has been chosen. The researcher here, will not only, interacts with the environment but also at the same time the researcher here will interpret the events and the meanings that are drawn from this particular environment. Theory The English is treated as a second language in Saudi Arabia and that is why most of the time the knowledge that is being provided to the students do not support them in their academic career or in their employment career. The various and different kind of approaches that could be used in the classroom to improve the way of teaching English include: Discourse Approach: In this particular approach emphasis is given t the language and the linguistic component of the English language. Therefore, there is the enhancement of the students pragmatic and the linguistic competencies. In case of learning, a foreign language one think should made sure that the foreign language fits perfectly with the culture and the context of the country. Apart from ensuring this, the teacher should ensure that the grammar, vocabulary, the translation, and all other things are given importance. Discourse approach help in developing the language skills in a student, especially this particular theory or approach is helpful for those students who are using the language for the purpose of communication Multiple Intelligence: The multiple intelligence would help in developing such a technique that would be helpful for everyone, or rather it can be said that it would be helpful for the people of all types of intelligence. The particular theory, if it is being applied properly then it have the tendency to outperform and could provide the best of the student in the classroom teaching. Multimedia Classroom: The multimedia classroom approach is an approach that is being adopted by the teachers, and this includes the implementation of the modern technology in the classroom. The modern technology includes those technologies that would help in conveying message both through the audio and the visual medium (Ushioda, 2013). Method and Ethics The ethical guidelines in this particular study will be followed to answer the questions that are related to the relativity of the context about the issues such as the participation of the participants and the impact the particular research outcome would have and it is based on the confidentiality of the research at the same time. Therefore, while making the research proposal and during the time of the study and the research the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research, should be followed, to ensure that none of the code of conduct is actually broken (Punch, 2009). The research should be conducted in such an environment where there is intellectual honesty and integrity and at the same time, there is scientific and social rigor. The researcher should go by the ethical principles and at the same time, and the same time justice and beneficence would be maintain during the time of conducting the research. The particular research has also given respect to the person as well as to the animals at the same time. The research should also go by the professional standards, as well as the contractual agreement and should go by the legal agreement at the same time. Therefore, at the time of conducting this particular research, it has been ensured that all the guidelines are being followed properly, and there is not deviation, of any kind, anywhere. References Almalki, M. M. (2014).Teacher Perception of a New English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Curriculum in Saudi Arabia(Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Fredonia). Cohen, L., Manion, L., Morrison, K. (2016).Research Methods in Education: 7th Edition (Paperback) - Routledge.Routledge.com. Retrieved 29 May 2016, from Gray, D. E. (2013).Doing research in the real world. Sage. Mahboob, A., Elyas, T. (2014). English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.World Englishes,33(1), 128-142. Mertens, D. M. (2014).Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity With Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods: Integrating Diversity With Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods. Sage Publications. Ortlipp, M. (2016).Keeping and Using Reflective Journals in the Qualitative Research Process(1st ed.). Albury, Australia: Charles Sturt University, Punch, K. F. (2009).Introduction to research methods in education. Sage. University, L. (2016).edu5rme research methods in ed.Latrobe.edu.au. Retrieved 29 May 2016. Ushioda, E. (Ed.). (2013).International perspectives on motivation: Language learning and professional challenges. Palgrave Macmillan. Wiek, A., Withycombe, L., Redman, C., Mills, S. B. (2011). Moving forward on competence in sustainability research and problem solving.Environment,53(2), 3-13.